Anthropogenic noise source and intensity effects on mood and relaxation in simulated park environments

Jacob A. Benfield*, Gretchen A. Nurse Rainbolt, Lucy J. Troup, Paul A. Bell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


Research on human caused sound has shown a wide range of effects in outdoor environments as well as laboratory simulations of those environments. Aircraft noise, ground traffic, and human voices have all been shown to lower scenic evaluation ratings and influence individual reports of affective state. However, previous research has relied entirely on pre-post measures of affect and psychological state rather than more momentary assessments. The current project utilized a time series of 15 measurements of overall mood and relaxation collected during a 30-minute period during which participants (N = 229) were exposed to randomized volume levels of natural sounds, natural sounds with aircraft noise, natural sounds with ground traffic, or natural sounds with human voices added. Results supported previous findings with significant sound type X volume interactions showing differing rates of decline for both outcomes. Natural sounds did not relate to the diminishing effects observed for the three anthropogenic sound conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number570694
Number of pages8
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 14 Oct 2020


  • soundscape
  • aircraft
  • transportation noise
  • national parks
  • stressors


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