Analysis and optimization of sandwich tubes energy absorbers under lateral loading: metallic foams under dynamic loading

A. Baroutaji, M.D. Gilchrist, D. Smyth, A.G. Olabi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, the sandwich tubes, which consist of thin-walled circular tubes with aluminium foam core, were proposed as energy absorption devices. The sandwich tubes were laterally crushed under quasi-static loading conditions. Detailed finite element model, validated against existing experimental results, was developed using the explicit code (ANSYS-LSDYNA) to assess the energy absorption responses and deformation modes. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed in parallel with the finite element models to perform both parametric studies and multi-objective optimization in order to establish the optimal configuration of the sandwich tube. Sampling designs of the sandwich tubes were constructed based on a D – optimal design of experiment (DOE) method. Factorial analysis was performed using the DOE results to investigate the influences of the geometric parameters on the responses of sandwich tubes. In addition, multi-objective optimization design (MOD) of the sandwich tubes is carried out by adopting a desirability approach. It was found that the tube with a minimum diameter of the inner layer and a maximum foam thickness are more suitable for use as energy absorbing components.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-88
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Impact Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2015



  • Sandwich tube
  • Energy absorbing systems
  • Lateral collapse
  • Aluminium foam
  • Design of experiment
  • Factorial analysis

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