An electromyographic study on the effects of slope and distance constraints on forearm muscle activity during golf putting

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

Abstract

IntroductionGolf mechanics incorporates specific coordinated movements of the body together with controlled low-velocity movements with precision to dictate performance [1]. Golf putting involves mainly upper body limb movement that has been likened to the movement of a pendulum [2,3]. Despite putting accounting for approximately 40% of strikes during a round [4], there are still a limited number of studies that have investigated golf putting [5]. Therefore, this study aims to discover if slope and distance constraints are influenced by electromyographic muscle activity within the flexor and extensor forearm muscles during golf putting.
MethodsFollowing ethical approval from the University of the West of Scotland, six amateur golfers were tested in a laboratory controlled environment during a putting task from two different slope constraints; uphill and downhill and two distances; 3 feet and 7 feet. The participants’ average muscle activity patterns in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscles of both lead and trail arms were calculated using surface electromyography (EMG). Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were applied.
ResultsThe descriptive statistics indicate mean forearm muscle EMG differences with respect to slope and distance constraints (Figure 1). There were no statistically significant differences in mean muscle activity between each transmitter at 3 feet versus 7 feet (P=0.265 for uphill and P=0.252 for downhill). However, significant differences were discovered when comparing FDS and ECRB lead muscles with FDS and ECRB trail muscles (P<0.001). 
DiscussionEven though no significant differences between the golf putting distances in relation to the slope constraints were found, significant differences were discovered when comparing FDS and ECRB lead muscles with FDS and ECRB trail muscles (P<0.001). This outcome suggests that distance and slope constraints do not have a direct effect on forearm muscle activity. Information from this study could be used by amateur golfers to assist with putting performance.

Conference

Conference8th World Conference of Biomechanics
Abbreviated titleWCB 2018
CountryIreland
CityDublin
Period8/07/1812/07/18
Internet address

Fingerprint

muscles
carpus
electromyography
limbs (animal)
mechanics
Scotland
statistics
methodology

Cite this

Finnie, K. P., Valentin, S., Gu, Y., Baker, J. S., & Ugbolue, U. C. (2018). An electromyographic study on the effects of slope and distance constraints on forearm muscle activity during golf putting. P2155-P2155. Paper presented at 8th World Conference of Biomechanics, Dublin, Ireland.
@conference{f5d807d62cf64ea9868032d2fc23ffd9,
title = "An electromyographic study on the effects of slope and distance constraints on forearm muscle activity during golf putting",
abstract = "IntroductionGolf mechanics incorporates specific coordinated movements of the body together with controlled low-velocity movements with precision to dictate performance [1]. Golf putting involves mainly upper body limb movement that has been likened to the movement of a pendulum [2,3]. Despite putting accounting for approximately 40\{%} of strikes during a round [4], there are still a limited number of studies that have investigated golf putting [5]. Therefore, this study aims to discover if slope and distance constraints are influenced by electromyographic muscle activity within the flexor and extensor forearm muscles during golf putting.MethodsFollowing ethical approval from the University of the West of Scotland, six amateur golfers were tested in a laboratory controlled environment during a putting task from two different slope constraints; uphill and downhill and two distances; 3 feet and 7 feet. The participants’ average muscle activity patterns in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscles of both lead and trail arms were calculated using surface electromyography (EMG). Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were applied.ResultsThe descriptive statistics indicate mean forearm muscle EMG differences with respect to slope and distance constraints (Figure 1). There were no statistically significant differences in mean muscle activity between each transmitter at 3 feet versus 7 feet (P=0.265 for uphill and P=0.252 for downhill). However, significant differences were discovered when comparing FDS and ECRB lead muscles with FDS and ECRB trail muscles (P<0.001). DiscussionEven though no significant differences between the golf putting distances in relation to the slope constraints were found, significant differences were discovered when comparing FDS and ECRB lead muscles with FDS and ECRB trail muscles (P<0.001). This outcome suggests that distance and slope constraints do not have a direct effect on forearm muscle activity. Information from this study could be used by amateur golfers to assist with putting performance.",
author = "Finnie, {Kyle P.} and Stephanie Valentin and Yaodong Gu and Baker, {Julien S.} and Ugbolue, {Ukadike C.}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "8",
language = "English",
pages = "P2155--P2155",
note = "8th World Conference of Biomechanics, WCB 2018 ; Conference date: 08-07-2018 Through 12-07-2018",
url = "http://wcb2018.com/",

}

Finnie, KP, Valentin, S, Gu, Y, Baker, JS & Ugbolue, UC 2018, 'An electromyographic study on the effects of slope and distance constraints on forearm muscle activity during golf putting' Paper presented at 8th World Conference of Biomechanics, Dublin, Ireland, 8/07/18 - 12/07/18, pp. P2155-P2155.

An electromyographic study on the effects of slope and distance constraints on forearm muscle activity during golf putting. / Finnie, Kyle P.; Valentin, Stephanie; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S.; Ugbolue, Ukadike C.

2018. P2155-P2155 Paper presented at 8th World Conference of Biomechanics, Dublin, Ireland.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - An electromyographic study on the effects of slope and distance constraints on forearm muscle activity during golf putting

AU - Finnie,Kyle P.

AU - Valentin,Stephanie

AU - Gu,Yaodong

AU - Baker,Julien S.

AU - Ugbolue,Ukadike C.

PY - 2018/7/8

Y1 - 2018/7/8

N2 - IntroductionGolf mechanics incorporates specific coordinated movements of the body together with controlled low-velocity movements with precision to dictate performance [1]. Golf putting involves mainly upper body limb movement that has been likened to the movement of a pendulum [2,3]. Despite putting accounting for approximately 40% of strikes during a round [4], there are still a limited number of studies that have investigated golf putting [5]. Therefore, this study aims to discover if slope and distance constraints are influenced by electromyographic muscle activity within the flexor and extensor forearm muscles during golf putting.MethodsFollowing ethical approval from the University of the West of Scotland, six amateur golfers were tested in a laboratory controlled environment during a putting task from two different slope constraints; uphill and downhill and two distances; 3 feet and 7 feet. The participants’ average muscle activity patterns in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscles of both lead and trail arms were calculated using surface electromyography (EMG). Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were applied.ResultsThe descriptive statistics indicate mean forearm muscle EMG differences with respect to slope and distance constraints (Figure 1). There were no statistically significant differences in mean muscle activity between each transmitter at 3 feet versus 7 feet (P=0.265 for uphill and P=0.252 for downhill). However, significant differences were discovered when comparing FDS and ECRB lead muscles with FDS and ECRB trail muscles (P<0.001). DiscussionEven though no significant differences between the golf putting distances in relation to the slope constraints were found, significant differences were discovered when comparing FDS and ECRB lead muscles with FDS and ECRB trail muscles (P<0.001). This outcome suggests that distance and slope constraints do not have a direct effect on forearm muscle activity. Information from this study could be used by amateur golfers to assist with putting performance.

AB - IntroductionGolf mechanics incorporates specific coordinated movements of the body together with controlled low-velocity movements with precision to dictate performance [1]. Golf putting involves mainly upper body limb movement that has been likened to the movement of a pendulum [2,3]. Despite putting accounting for approximately 40% of strikes during a round [4], there are still a limited number of studies that have investigated golf putting [5]. Therefore, this study aims to discover if slope and distance constraints are influenced by electromyographic muscle activity within the flexor and extensor forearm muscles during golf putting.MethodsFollowing ethical approval from the University of the West of Scotland, six amateur golfers were tested in a laboratory controlled environment during a putting task from two different slope constraints; uphill and downhill and two distances; 3 feet and 7 feet. The participants’ average muscle activity patterns in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscles of both lead and trail arms were calculated using surface electromyography (EMG). Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were applied.ResultsThe descriptive statistics indicate mean forearm muscle EMG differences with respect to slope and distance constraints (Figure 1). There were no statistically significant differences in mean muscle activity between each transmitter at 3 feet versus 7 feet (P=0.265 for uphill and P=0.252 for downhill). However, significant differences were discovered when comparing FDS and ECRB lead muscles with FDS and ECRB trail muscles (P<0.001). DiscussionEven though no significant differences between the golf putting distances in relation to the slope constraints were found, significant differences were discovered when comparing FDS and ECRB lead muscles with FDS and ECRB trail muscles (P<0.001). This outcome suggests that distance and slope constraints do not have a direct effect on forearm muscle activity. Information from this study could be used by amateur golfers to assist with putting performance.

M3 - Paper

SP - P2155-P2155

ER -