An Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based learning agent for classifying learning styles in self-regulated smart learning environment

Yusufu Gambo*, Muhammad Zeeshan Shakir

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
45 Downloads (Pure)


The increasing development in smart and mobile technologies transforms learning environments into smart learning environments. Students process information and learn in different ways, and this can affect the teaching and learning process. To provide a system capable of adapting learning contents based on students' learning behavior in a learning environment, the automated classification of the learners' learning patterns offers a concrete means for teachers to personalize stu-dents' learning. Previously, this research proposed a model of a self-regulated smart learning environment called the metacognitive smart learning environment model (MSLEM). The model identified five metacognitive skills-goal settings (GS), help-seeking (HS), task strategies (TS), time-management (TM), and self-evaluation (SE) that are critical for online learning success. Based on these skills, this paper develops a learning agent to classify students' learning styles using arti-ficial neural networks (ANN), which mapped to Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM) as the expected outputs. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the consistency of classification data, and positive results were obtained with an average accuracy of 93%. The data from the students were grouped into six training and testing, each with a different split-ting ratio and different training accuracy values for the various percentages of Felder-Silverman Learning Style dimensions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-199
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 20 Sept 2021


  • self-regulated learning
  • smart learning environment
  • personalized learning
  • learning styles
  • artificial neural network


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