AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

Michael R. Graham, Peter Evans, Bruce Davies, Julien S. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH) and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)587-597
Number of pages11
JournalTherapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • AAS
  • cosmesis
  • growth hormone
  • insulin
  • performance
  • strength


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