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The discipline of environmental geochemistry and health establishes and explains links between the natural or disturbed chemical composition of the earth’s surface and the health of plants, animals and people. Beneficial elements regulate or promote enzymatic and hormonal activity whereas other elements may be toxic. Bedrock geochemistry controls the composition of soil and hence that of water and vegetation. Environmental issues, such as pollution, arising from the extraction and use of mineral resources, are discussed. The effects of contaminants introduced into the earth’s geochemical systems are examined. Geochemical surveys of soil, water and plants show how major and trace elements are distributed geographically. Associated epidemiological studies reveal the possibility of causal links between the natural or disturbed geochemical environment and disease. Experimental research illuminates the nature or consequences of natural or disturbed geochemical processes.